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Resources

9/11 – After-Action Report on the Response to the September 11 Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon

9/11 – After-Action Report on the Response to the September 11 Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon

Arlington County

This report describes the activities of Arlington County and the supporting jurisdictions, government agencies, and other organizations in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the Pentagon.

Aurora – Century 16 Theater Shooting: After Action Report for the City of Aurora

Aurora – Century 16 Theater Shooting: After Action Report for the City of Aurora

TriData Division, System Planning Corporation

This review focuses primarily on the response of the city’s emergency forces during the first few days after the shooting and family and victim assistance, assistance to first responders, and healing support for the family. It is hoped that the findings and recommendations will be useful to other jurisdictions as well.

Behavioral Assessment of Maine Shooter's Attack, Intelligence Gaps, and Lessons Learned

Behavioral Assessment of Maine Shooter's Attack, Intelligence Gaps, and Lessons Learned

The Counterterrorism Group

This report summarizes the attack and discusses the lessons learned.

Boston Marathon – After Action Report for the Response to the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings

Boston Marathon – After Action Report for the Response to the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings

Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency

This report details best practices, lessons learned, and recommendations for the purpose of assisting public safety, public health, and medical personnel involved in the response in further developing actions that went well and taking corrective measures to address areas needing improvement.

Boston Marathon – Why Was Boston Strong? Lessons from the Boston  Marathon Bombing

Boston Marathon – Why Was Boston Strong? Lessons from the Boston Marathon Bombing

Harvard Kennedy School

This report, through the analysis of selected aspects of the Marathon events, provideslessons that can help response organizations improve preparation for emergencies that may occur at “fixed” events and for “no notice” events.

Columbine – The Report of Governor Bill Owens’ Columbine Review Commission

Columbine – The Report of Governor Bill Owens’ Columbine Review Commission

Columbine Review Commission

In examining the Columbine shooting, this report aims to inform, educate, and provide recommendations for preparing for and preventing additional school shootings.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL) – Active Shooter Incident and Post-Event Response

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL) – Active Shooter Incident and Post-Event Response

Broward County

This report describes the response to the events of Friday, January 6, 2017, constructively evaluates and assesses strategic and tactical operations, and identifies unique issues and challenges faced by the multitude of responders. The report also provides practical recommendations to support future emergency preparedness and response, incident management, and recovery.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL) – Active Shooter/Mass Evacuation Critical Incident

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL) – Active Shooter/Mass Evacuation Critical Incident

Broward County Sheriff’s Office

This report provides candid insight, feedback, and details regarding the response to the Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport active shooter.

Hot Yoga Tallahassee: A Case Study of Misogynistic Extremism

Hot Yoga Tallahassee: A Case Study of Misogynistic Extremism

United States Secret Service

The behavioral history of the Hot Yoga Tallahassee attacker illustrates many of the behavioral threat assessment themes identified through years of U.S. Secret Service research examining targeted violence.

Las Vegas – 1 October After-Action Report

Las Vegas – 1 October After-Action Report


FEMA, Clark County Fire Department, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD)

This report is a critical, administrative review that details LVMPD’s response to the October 1, 2017, shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, and provides multiple recommendations from the lessons learned.

Las Vegas – 1 October After-Action Review

Las Vegas – 1 October After-Action Review

Clark County Fire Department, LVMPD

This report is intended to assist Clark County public safety agencies, as well as jurisdictions across the United States, to improve their preparedness for incidents like the one that occurred in Las Vegas.

Las Vegas – After-Action Assessment: Lessons Learned from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department’s Ambush Incident

Las Vegas – After-Action Assessment: Lessons Learned from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department’s Ambush Incident

COPS, CNA

This report summarizes key findings developed during an after-action analysis of the ambush and subsequent police engagement with the assailants.

Paris – The Attacks on Paris: Lessons Learned

Paris – The Attacks on Paris: Lessons Learned

Homeland Security Advisory Council

The purpose of this report is to document the findings of the Los Angeles delegation that traveled to Paris in 2016 to meet with key members of the Parisian law enforcement and intelligence communities, as they shared their lessons learned from the attacks on Paris in November 2015.

Parkland – Marjory Stoneham Douglas High School Public Safety Commission - Second Report

Parkland – Marjory Stoneham Douglas High School Public Safety Commission - Second Report

MSD Public Safety Commission


This document follows up to the initial report released in January 2019 and includes further investigation into various matters.

Parkland – Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Commission - Initial Report

Parkland – Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Commission - Initial Report

Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Commission - Initial Report

This report details what happened leading up to the shooting and the law enforcement response.

Parkland – Recovering and Moving Forward

Parkland – Recovering and Moving Forward

National Police Foundation, Center for Mass Violence Response Studies

Lessons learned and recommendations following the shooting at Marjory Stoneham Douglas High School.

Pulse Nightclub – After-Action Review of the Orlando Fire Department Response to the Attack at Pulse Nightclub

Pulse Nightclub – After-Action Review of the Orlando Fire Department Response to the Attack at Pulse Nightclub

National Police Foundation

This report details the Orlando Fire Department’s response to the Pulse Nightclub shooting and describes the public safety response more generally, to provide context.

Pulse Nightclub – Lessons Learned from the Pulse Nightclub Shooting: An Interview with Staff from Orlando Regional Medical Center

Pulse Nightclub – Lessons Learned from the Pulse Nightclub Shooting: An Interview with Staff from Orlando Regional Medical Center

ASPR TRACIE

Responding trauma surgeons, emergency physicians, and the director of emergency preparedness in charge of Orlando Regional Medical Center’s response to the Pulse Nightclub shooting were interviewed by ASPR TRACIE. Questions and answers are outlined in this document.

Pulse Nightclub – Pulse Tragedy: After Action Report

Pulse Nightclub – Pulse Tragedy: After Action Report

City of Orlando Office of Emergency Management

This report reflects the findings of an after action review of response and recovery activities of public safety, public health, and community partners related to the shooting and the care and support of those impacted by the incident.

Pulse Nightclub – Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub

Pulse Nightclub – Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub

COPS, National Police Foundation

This report identifies best practices and lessons learned in regard to the Pulse Nightclub shooting.

San Bernardino & Orlando – Lessons Learned from the Police Response to the San Bernardino and Orlando Terrorist Attacks

San Bernardino & Orlando – Lessons Learned from the Police Response to the San Bernardino and Orlando Terrorist Attacks

Combating Terrorism Center

This article describes the San Bernardino and Orlando attacks, identifies lessons learned during the Police Foundation’s reviews of law enforcement responses to the attacks, and highlights some of the challenges confronting the law enforcement response to terrorist events and other acts of mass public violence.

San Bernardino – An Organizational Review of San Bernardino County’s Response to the December 2, 2015 Terrorist Attack

San Bernardino – An Organizational Review of San Bernardino County’s Response to the December 2, 2015 Terrorist Attack

San Bernardino County, CPARS Consulting Inc

This report endeavors not only to capture the breadth of the impacts on the County, but also to highlight the hundreds of actions taken by dedicated County employees to address those impacts.

San Bernardino – Bringing Calm to Chaos: A Police Foundation Review of the San Bernardino Terrorist Attacks

San Bernardino – Bringing Calm to Chaos: A Police Foundation Review of the San Bernardino Terrorist Attacks

COPS, National Police Foundation

This report gives a regional view of the response to the San Bernardino terrorist attacks from the perspective of the first responders and identifies lessons learned before, during, and after the attack.

Sandy Hook – Connecticut State Police After Action Report: Newtown Shooting Incident

Sandy Hook – Connecticut State Police After Action Report: Newtown Shooting Incident

Connecticut State Police

This report is both to inform and improve the agency’s response capabilities and to provide the reader with a review of the many challenges faced by the Connecticut State Police.

Uvalde – A Report to the House of Representatives 88th Texas Legislature

Uvalde – A Report to the House of Representatives 88th Texas Legislature

House Investigative Committee on the Robb Elementary Shooting Texas House of Representatives

Conscious of the desire of the Uvalde community and the public at large to receive an accurate account of the tragedy at Robb Elementary School, the Committee has worked diligently and with care to issue this interim report of its factual findings. The Committee’s work is not complete. We do not have access to all material witnesses. Medical examiners have not yet issued any reports about their findings, and multiple other investigations remain ongoing. The Committee believes this interim report constitutes the most complete telling to date of the events of and leading to the May 24, 2022, tragedy.

Uvalde – Interim Report to the 88th Legislature

Uvalde – Interim Report to the 88th Legislature

Senate Special Committee to Protect All Texans

The purpose of this committee is to examine current regulations regarding school safety, mental health, social media, police training, and firearm safety and make recommendations to improve the laws and practices governing those subject areas. This committee was not tasked with investigating the events of the shooting at Robb Elementary School and this report does not contain any further details of the shooting beyond those that have already been reported.

Uvalde – Robb Elementary School Attack Response Assessment and Recommendations

Uvalde – Robb Elementary School Attack Response Assessment and Recommendations

Texas State University ALERTT

The Texas Department of Public Safety contacted the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT) Center soon after the attack to assess the law enforcement response.

Virginia Beach – An Independent Review of the Tragic Events of May 31, 2019

Virginia Beach – An Independent Review of the Tragic Events of May 31, 2019

Hillard Heintze

This report details the shooting that occurred on May 31, 2019, in the City of Virginia Beach and includes a review of relevant city policies, lessons learned, and recommended strategies, tactics, and countermeasures to prepare and prevent future attacks.

Virginia Tech – Report of the Review Panel

Virginia Tech – Report of the Review Panel

Virginia Tech Review Panel

This report outlines the findings and recommendations put forward by the Virginia Tech Review Panel regarding the Virginia Tech mass shooting.

Washington Navy Yard – After Action Report for September 2013 Washington Navy Yard Shootings

Washington Navy Yard – After Action Report for September 2013 Washington Navy Yard Shootings

Metropolitan Police Department, Washington, DC

This report describes the events related to the law enforcement response, constructively evaluates and assesses the tactical and operational actions, and identifies the unique issues and challenges faced by the responding law enforcement officers on September 16, 2013.

Washington Navy Yard – The District of Columbia Communications Interoperability Summit: A 6 Year Review of the Washington Navy Yard Shooting

Washington Navy Yard – The District of Columbia Communications Interoperability Summit: A 6 Year Review of the Washington Navy Yard Shooting

Government of the District of Columbia, HSEMA, CISA

This document highlights finding from the summit, which convened some of the key stakeholders and partners who responded, as well as sone of those who are currently charged with leadership roles in the District’s public safety arena, to highlight the progress made so far, and to identify and begin to address any gaps that still exist.

BIT/CARE Team Development Checklist

BIT/CARE Team Development Checklist

D-Prep Safety and InterACTT

Use this checklist when developing and assessing your BIT/CARE team process and procedures.

Balancing Safety and Support on Campus: A Guide for Campus Teams

Balancing Safety and Support on Campus: A Guide for Campus Teams

The Jed Foundation

As campus teams have become more widespread, the Higher Education Mental Health Alliance (HEMHA) recognized the need for a resource that would help both existing and new teams make informed decisions about their structure, scope, functions, and day-to-day operations. This guide summarizes the existing literature on campus teams and suggests some of the key issues that should be considered when creating or managing a campus team. The guide may be particularly useful to new teams considering various options for how they should be organized and led, but should also be helpful to existing teams interested in assessing their current functions, operations, or emphases.

Bias Mitigation

Bias Mitigation

D-Prep Safety

Bias is our tendency to see the world from our lens of experience. It can lead us to ignore evidence or make assumptions not based on evidence. It can create blinders for those involved in the threat analysis or mitigation process and impact our ability to build rapport, connect with students, and create safe/neutral spaces. While we can never remove bias, we can train to make us more aware of how bias can affect decision making.

Black Box Thinking: The Surprising Truth About Success

Black Box Thinking: The Surprising Truth About Success

Matthew Syed

Using a cornucopia of interviews, gripping stories, and sharp-edged science, Syed explores the intimate relationship between failure and success, and shows why we need to transport black box thinking into our own lives. If we wish to unleash our potential, we must diagnose and break free of our failures. Part manifesto for change, part intellectual adventure, this groundbreaking book reveals how to do both.

Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes Are High

Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes Are High

Kerry Patterson, Joseph Grenny, Ron McMillan, & Al Switzler

The book that revolutionized business communications has been updated for today’s communication challenges. Crucial Conversations provides powerful skills to ensure every conversation―especially difficult ones―leads to the results you want. Written in an engaging and witty style, it teaches readers how to be persuasive rather than abrasive, how to get back to productive dialogue when others blow up or clam up, and it offers powerful skills for mastering high-stakes conversations, regardless of the topic or person.

Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model

Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model

National Threat Assessment Center

When incidents of school violence occur, they leave a profound and lasting impact on the school, the community, and our nation as a whole. Ensuring safe environments for elementary and secondary school students, educators, administrators, and others is essential. This operational guide was developed to provide fundamental direction on how to prevent incidents of targeted school violence, that is, when a student specifically selects a school or a member of the school community for harm. The content in this guide is based on information developed by the U.S. Secret Service, Protective Intelligence and Assessment Division, National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC).

Gender Expression: Understanding Pronouns in the Classroom and Workplace

Gender Expression: Understanding Pronouns in the Classroom and Workplace

D-Prep Safety

This guide provide some terminology and resources related to gender identity and expression. More information can be found at https://www.genderexpression.info/

How to Engage in Difficult Conversations on Identity, Race, and Politics in Higher Education

How to Engage in Difficult Conversations on Identity, Race, and Politics in Higher Education

Tammy Hodo, Jacques Whitfield, Brian Van Brunt, and Poppy Fitch

How to Engage in Difficult Conversations on Identity, Race, and Politics in Higher Education addresses the polarized political and racialized climate in America today. This resource is designed to better prepare instructors, faculty, higher education staff and administrators to enter into these hard conversations with an improved awareness of contentious issues and how to facilitate, and potentially de-escalate, discussions that are already occurring.

Marketing Your Team

Marketing Your Team

D-Prep Safety

A team is only as effective as the information it receives from the community. Marketing and advertising the team in order to solicit concerns from faculty, staff and students is a central part of running a successful CARE or BIT team. Adopting a continuous improvement model for encouraging community members to share concerns with the team is key to falling into a blind spot (missing reporting from key areas around campus) or availability bias (assuming the reports you are getting are the only reports that exist).

Medical Leave Policy Examples

Medical Leave Policy Examples

D-Prep Safety

Check out some examples of medical leave policies from several colleges and universities. We particularly recommend exploring Boston University's guide.

Microaggressions

Microaggressions

D-Prep Safety

Coined by Chester M. Pierce, microaggressions are brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to certain individuals because of their group membership.

Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

Carol S. Dweck

After decades of research, world-renowned Stanford University psychologist Carol S. Dweck, Ph.D., discovered a simple but groundbreaking idea: the power of mindset. In this brilliant book, she shows how success in school, work, sports, the arts, and almost every area of human endeavor can be dramatically influenced by how we think about our talents and abilities. People with a fixed mindset—those who believe that abilities are fixed—are less likely to flourish than those with a growth mindset—those who believe that abilities can be developed. Mindset reveals how great parents, teachers, managers, and athletes can put this idea to use to foster outstanding accomplishment.

Multiple Teams: How to Choose

Multiple Teams: How to Choose

InterACTT

One of the challenges facing schools, colleges and universities is sorting through the needs of multiple teams operating in connection with one another. These teams are often focused on safety and security issues for various populations including students, visitors, faculty, staff and others who may use the buildings or campus resources.

Referral Checklist and Service Audit

Referral Checklist and Service Audit

D-Prep Safety and InterACTT

Interventions created by BIT/CARE teams or case management should be designed to ensure a high likelihood of follow through and buy-in from those being offered the intervention. Providers should manage the ongoing nature of helping another person through a difficult time and should consider the ease of access when considering referrals to services.

Tabletop Exercises

Tabletop Exercises

D-Prep Safety

Three case studies with discussion questions to work through with your team.

The Logic Of Failure: Recognizing And Avoiding Error In Complex Situations

The Logic Of Failure: Recognizing And Avoiding Error In Complex Situations

Dietrich Dorner

Why do we make mistakes? Are there certain errors common to failure, whether in a complex enterprise or daily life? In this truly indispensable book, Dietrich Derner identifies what he calls the "logic of failure" -- certain tendencies in our patterns of thought that, while appropriate to an older, simpler world, prove disastrous for the complex world we live in now. Working with imaginative and often hilarious computer simulations, he analyzes the roots of catastrophe, showing city planners in the very act of creating gridlock and disaster, or public health authorities setting the scene for starvation.

Threat Assessment and Management Teams

Threat Assessment and Management Teams

DHS Center for Prevention Programs and Partnerships

Threat assessment and management teams are effective proactive and protective measures that are designed to prevent – not predict – potential acts of targeted violence and terrorism. Through identifying and managing potential threats, these teams provide alternatives to investigation and/or prosecution for bystanders who are actively seeking intervention assistance with a known individual at risk of mobilizing to violence. Effective threat assessment and management teams are multi-disciplinary and may include education administrators, mental health and social service providers, faith leaders, medical personnel, law enforcement, technology experts, and others. While it is important for law enforcement to be involved to ensure a comprehensive and inclusive approach – and to intervene if the threat escalates – partnerships with multidisciplinary partners are crucial, as the primary goal of this approach is to provide individuals with support services before the threat rises to a level requiring law enforcement.

Website and Social Media Search Terms

Website and Social Media Search Terms

Dr. Brian Van Brunt and Dr. Peter Langman

Two issues of importance for Behavioral Intervention and Threat Assessment Teams are the accessibility of the BIT/TAT site on the college website and what keywords to search for on social media in conjunction with the school name to get out ahead of potential threats. This article offers some suggestions to increase visibility and access to the BIT/TAT website and identify potential concerns by combing through social media for threatening language.

A review of crisis de­‐escalation techniques for K­‐12 and higher education instructors

A review of crisis de­‐escalation techniques for K­‐12 and higher education instructors

Amy Murphy, Ph.D. and Brian Van Brunt, Ed.D.

Student behavioral concerns disrupt the teaching and learning process in both K-12 and higher education classrooms. Education preparation programs and professional development curriculums teach a variety of techniques related to crisis de‐escalation. This paper explores the literature available on crisis de‐escalation methods in K‐12 and higher education in order to answer the following questions: 1) what techniques are being taught, 2) what evidence exists regarding effectiveness, and 3) what similarities and differences exist between K-12 and higher education practices? This literature review outlines directions for future research and opportunities to apply best practices across educational settings.

Working with Resistant and  Difficult Students

Working with Resistant and Difficult Students

D-Prep Safety

This handy guide gives practical advice on working with resistant and difficult students.

Disabled and Here

Disabled and Here

Disabled And Here is a disability-led stock image and interview series celebrating disabled Black, Indigenous, people of color (BIPOC).

Say Their Names

Say Their Names

The Stanford Libraries

Say Their Names – No More Names is an exhibit that highlights victims who were chosen because they represent a variety of Black Americans whose freedoms were denied or whose lives were callously taken by vile attacks that have terrorized the Black community for centuries. The victims are young, old, transgender and straight. Some struggled with mental health issues or other challenges while others were just charting their path forward in life. All were Black people, and all were violated or murdered.

Subtle Acts of Exclusion: How to Understand, Identify, and Stop Microaggressions

Subtle Acts of Exclusion: How to Understand, Identify, and Stop Microaggressions

Tiffany Jana & Michael Baran

Tiffany Jana and Michael Baran offer a clear, more accessible term, subtle acts of exclusion, or SAEs, to emphasize the purpose and effects of these actions. After all, people generally aren't trying to be aggressive--usually they're trying to say something nice, learn more about a person, be funny, or build closeness. But whether in the form of exaggerated stereotypes, backhanded compliments, unfounded assumptions, or objectification, SAE are damaging to our coworkers, friends, and acquaintances.

Back to School Safety Preparation

Back to School Safety Preparation

D-Prep Safety

These suggestions will help keep your campus safe in the event of an emergency.

Beyond Initial Response: Using the National Incident Management System Incident Command System

Beyond Initial Response: Using the National Incident Management System Incident Command System

Tim Deal

Responders have to be ready to carry out their Incident Command System position-specific responsibilities and to be effective they have to know how to operate as part of an ICS organization. This book provides readers the confidence, knowledge and assurance that are required to successfully play as part of an incident management team.

CPTED for Houses of Worship

CPTED for Houses of Worship

D-Prep Safety

Learn some tips for how crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) principles can help protect your house of worship.

Catastrophe and Social Change: Based Upon a Sociological Study of the Halifax Disaster

Catastrophe and Social Change: Based Upon a Sociological Study of the Halifax Disaster

Samuel Henry Prince

This book offers an observational study of the social impact caused by the Halifax disaster, where 1,782 people were killed in an explosion on a cargo ship, and the relief efforts following the event. In it, Prince follows the event from the nature of the catastrophe, through the disintegration of social order, and ending with the rebuilding of the effected communities.

Creating a Logistics Resource Binder for Your K-12 School

Creating a Logistics Resource Binder for Your K-12 School

D-Prep Safety

In the event of a disaster, you will need obtain the resources and services the
school community will need in the immediate aftermath of the event. This helpful guide will give you guidance and advice in setting up your school's logistics binder.

Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States

Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States

Dennis S. Mileti

Disasters by Design provides an alternative and sustainable way to view, study, and manage hazards in the United States that would result in disaster-resilient communities, higher environmental quality, inter- and intragenerational equity, economic sustainability, and improved quality of life as well as an overview of what is known about natural hazards, disasters, recovery, and mitigation.

Full-Rip 9.0: The Next Big Earthquake in the Pacific Northwest

Full-Rip 9.0: The Next Big Earthquake in the Pacific Northwest

Sandi Doughton

Meet the scientists who are dedicated to understanding the way the earth moves and what patterns can be identified and how prepared (or not) people are. With a 100% chance of a mega-quake hitting the Pacific Northwest, this fascinating book reports on the scientists who are trying to understand when, where, and just how big The Big One will be.

Left of Bang: How the Marine Corps’ Combat Hunter Program Can Save Your Life

Left of Bang: How the Marine Corps’ Combat Hunter Program Can Save Your Life

Patrick Van Horne, Jason Riley, & Shawn Coyne

Is there a way to listen to your inner protector more and to increase your sensitivity to threats before they happen? General James Mattis asked this question and issued a directive to operationalize the Marine Corps’ Combat Hunter program, a comprehensive and no-nonsense approach to heightening each and every one of our gifts of fear.

School Safety Best Practices

School Safety Best Practices

Pikmykid with Dr. Brian Van Brunt, Pat Bhava, and Jeff Solomon

Pikmykid invited three experts to offer their insights and strategies in a panel discussion. Discover the following featured highlights of what Jeff Solomon, Dr. Brian Van Brunt, Director of Behavior & Threat Management at D-Prep, and Pat Bhava, CEO of Pikmykid consider school safety best practices and how you can implement them starting… today!

The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right

The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right

Atul Gawande

Gawande shows what the simple idea of the checklist reveals about the complexity of our lives and how we can deal with it. He examines checklists in aviation, construction, and investing, but focuses on medicine, where checklists mandating simple measures like hand washing have dramatically reduced hospital-caused infections and other complications.

The Gift of Fear: Survival Signals that Protect Us from Violence

The Gift of Fear: Survival Signals that Protect Us from Violence

Gavin de Becker

De Becker offers specific ways to protect yourself and those you love, including how to act when approached by a stranger, when you should fear someone close to you, what to do if you are being stalked, how to uncover the source of anonymous threats or phone calls, the biggest mistake you can make with a threatening person, and more.

The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes — and Why

The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes — and Why

Amanda Ripley

By combining the stories of survivors with research into how the brain works under extreme duress, this inspiring mix of narrative, science and participatory journalism reveals how human fear circuits and crowd dynamics work, why our instincts sometimes misfire in modern calamities, and how we can do much, much better.

Active Shooter Incidents in the United States in 2022

Active Shooter Incidents in the United States in 2022

U.S. Department of Justice

This report is part of a series of FBI active shooter-related products published since September 2014. These reports are not intended to explore all facets of active shooter incidents but rather intended to provide law enforcement officers, other first responders, corporations, educators, and the public with a baseline understanding of active shooter incidents.

Averting Targeted School Violence: A U.S. Secret Service Analysis of Plots against schools

Averting Targeted School Violence: A U.S. Secret Service Analysis of Plots against schools

National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC)

Understanding cases of averted violence allows officials and researchers the ability to study where violence reduction principles worked and stopped an attack from moving from idea to action. This study included 67 averted attacks occurring from 2006 to 2018. The report stresses the importance of identifying risk factors like bullying, access to firearms, and grievances prior to criminal action.

Debunking the Myths: Mental Illness and Mass Shootings

Debunking the Myths: Mental Illness and Mass Shootings

Drs. Brian Van Brunt and Lisa Pescara-Kovach

There is a pervasive assumption that mental illness equates to dangerousness and violence as it relates to mass shootings. The researchers examine the assumption and present a comprehensive literature review of how issues of mental illness impact violence and dangerousness. Many risk factors for violence are associated with mental health conditions, but they also occur in the absence of a diagnosis. A range of issues will be explored, including the unpredictability of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, stress from mental health problems inhibiting emotional stability, and past inpatient hospitalizations for suicide attempts as they impact likelihood of committing targeted violence. Risk mitigation strategies will be presented following a review of the literature.

Five Facts About Mass Shootings in K-12 Schools

Five Facts About Mass Shootings in K-12 Schools

National Institute of Justice

Preventing mass shootings in the United States, particularly those occurring in school settings, is an important priority for families, government leaders and officials, public safety agencies,
mental health professionals, educators, and local communities. What does the evidence say about how to detect, prevent, and respond to these tragic events? Here’s what we’ve learned through NIJ-sponsored research,

School Shooters: Understanding High School, College, and Adult Perpetrators

School Shooters: Understanding High School, College, and Adult Perpetrators

Peter Langman

Langman takes a look at 48 national and international cases of school shootings in order to dispel the myths, explore the motives, and expose the realities of preventing school shootings from happening in the future, including identifying at risk individuals and helping them to seek help before it’s too late.

The Contagion Effect as it Relates to Public Mass Shootings and Suicides

The Contagion Effect as it Relates to Public Mass Shootings and Suicides

Dr. Lisa Pescara-Kovach and Dr. MJ Raleigh

This article demonstrates the impact of media on public mass shootings and suicides with special attention to sensationalized media coverage such as the Columbine attack, Virginia Tech, and Mandalay Bay shootings, as well as the Netflix series, Thirteen Reasons Why. The authors provide relevant research and advice to assist Behavioral Intervention Teams (BITs) toward reducing the risk of copycat public mass shootings and suicides by being more intentional regarding communication and coverage related to these events. Experts in the field of threat assessment have long understood the effect of media attention on high fatality mass shootings. These highly publicized, greatly sensationalized shootings often inspire and motivate at-risk individuals to perpetrate similar acts to achieve greater notoriety. Such shootings and suicides that include graphic details by media sources increase the likelihood of similar violence. Just as media details of a public mass shooting provide a recipe for a copycat incident, so do sensationalized details of suicide. High-profile celebrity suicides and graphic fictional suicides have been a trigger for copycat suicides for decades. Predicting and/or reducing copycat incidents is a central focus of Behavioral Intervention Teams (BITs). Research and guidance in this article serves to assist members in understanding what should be avoided to reduce contagion effects and copycat behavior.

Trigger Points: Inside the Mission to Stop Mass Shootings in America

Trigger Points: Inside the Mission to Stop Mass Shootings in America

Mark Follman

As Follman examines threat-assessment work throughout the country, he goes inside the FBI’s elite Behavioral Analysis Unit and immerses in an Oregon school district’s innovative violence-prevention program, the first such comprehensive system to prioritize helping kids and avoid relying on punitive measures. With its focus squarely on progress, the story delves into consequential tragedies and others averted, revealing the dangers of cultural misunderstanding and media sensationalism along the way. Ultimately, Follman shows how the nation could adopt the techniques of behavioral threat assessment more broadly, with powerful potential to save lives.

Why Kids Kill: Inside the Minds of School Shooters

Why Kids Kill: Inside the Minds of School Shooters

Peter Langman

In this breakthrough analysis, Dr. Peter Langman presents the psychological causes of school shootings and offers unprecedented insight into why certain teens exhibit the potential to kill. He shows how to identify early signs of possible violence and offers preventative measures that parents and educators can take to protect their communities.

A Case for Case Management

A Case for Case Management

Brian Van Brunt

Case management, at its very core, is about helping students to overcome the obstacles they encounter in their lives. This is central to the educational mission of most institutions of higher education, which seek to retain students and provide them with an environment conductive to academic success. Case management can serve as a keystone mechanism through which universities support and keep students safe.

Alcohol and Addiction

Alcohol and Addiction

D-Prep Safety

Addiction is a compulsion that perpetuates itself. It can pertain to a substance or an activity. Some of the substances and/or activities that lead to addiction are alcohol, drugs, shopping, gambling, sex, overeating and smoking. A common addiction students struggle with is alcohol addiction.

Autism and Asperger's

Autism and Asperger's

D-Prep Safety

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, formally known as Asperger’s Disorder) is a developmental spectrum disorder that impacts an individual’s ability to read subtle social cues (such as flirting, sarcasm or teasing) and function in social situations. They may also experience distractions in the academic or residential life setting. This may include sensitivity to stimuli such as florescent lights or loud noises, hyper-sensitivity to living close to other students or being overreactive to small slights or frustrations. Students with ASD may have very intense, very idiosyncratic interests such as collecting items or obsessive interests in
particular subject areas. They may also display odd movements, ways of interacting or unusual speech tones as they talk. Learn more about ASD and what to expect from autistic students.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

D-Prep Safety

Bipolar disorder can be a devastating illness for a young person to struggle with while in college. Bipolar disorder involves periods of manic moods that lead to poorly planned activities, a lack of impulse control and increased risk taking behaviors. These manic moods may include overspending on credit cards, starting various business ventures, collecting multiple speeding tickets and a lack of overall stability.

COVID-19 and the 'Echo Pandemic' of Suicide and Mental Illness

COVID-19 and the 'Echo Pandemic' of Suicide and Mental Illness

Podcast Featuring Dr. Lorenzo Norris and Dr. McIntyre

This podcast addresses the potential for an echo pandemic, a term being used by health professionals to describe the possibility of massive mental health concerns following COVID-19. The transcript provides some useful quotes. Key take-a-ways focus on programming to address resiliency and a return to the basics of support, such as access to care, a consistent schedule, healthy eating and exercise.

Changing for Good

Changing for Good

James O. Prochaska

This groundbreaking book offers simple self-assessments, informative case histories, and concrete examples to help clarify each stage and process. Whether your goal is to start saving money, to stop drinking, or to end other self-defeating or addictive behaviors, this revolutionary program will help you implement positive personal change . . . for life.

Gender Expression: Understanding Pronouns in the Classroom and Workplace

Gender Expression: Understanding Pronouns in the Classroom and Workplace

D-Prep Safety

This guide provide some terminology and resources related to gender identity and expression. More information can be found at https://www.genderexpression.info/

Man's Search for Meaning

Man's Search for Meaning

Viktor E. Frankl

Psychiatrist Viktor Frankl's memoir has riveted generations of readers with its descriptions of life in Nazi death camps and its lessons for spiritual survival. Between 1942 and 1945 Frankl labored in four different camps, including Auschwitz, while his parents, brother, and pregnant wife perished. Based on his own experience and the experiences of others he treated later in his practice, Frankl argues that we cannot avoid suffering but we can choose how to cope with it, find meaning in it, and move forward with renewed purpose. Frankl's theory-known as logotherapy, from the Greek word logos ("meaning")-holds that our primary drive in life is not pleasure, as Freud maintained, but the discovery and pursuit of what we personally find meaningful.

Medical Leave Policy Examples

Medical Leave Policy Examples

D-Prep Safety

Check out some examples of medical leave policies from several colleges and universities. We particularly recommend exploring Boston University's guide.

Processional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL) - Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue

Processional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL) - Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue

B. Hudnall Stamm

When you help people you have direct contact with their lives. As you may have found, your compassion for those you help can affect you in positive and negative ways. This worksheet includes some questions about your experiences, both positive and negative, as a helper. Consider each of the questions about you and your current work situation. Select the number that honestly reflects how frequently you experienced these things in the last 30 days.

Suicide Prevention Resource Center

Suicide Prevention Resource Center

SPRC and SAMHSA

The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) is the only federally supported resource center devoted to advancing the implementation of the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention. SPRC is funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

Suicide trends in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic

Suicide trends in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic

Jane Pirkis et al.

This research offers a cautionary tale against assuming the general expectation that suicide rates have spiked during COVID. The data the authors reviewed found this not to be the case in high- and middle-income countries. Suicide data often lags behind real time; these authors looked at media and real time reports to better assess the number of suicides occurring in 21 countries.

The Preparation and Role of College Counselors

The Preparation and Role of College Counselors

Brian Van Brunt, Ed.D. and the ACCA PAPA Committee

This Q&A addresses the role of the college counselor and the training they receive.

Thought Disorders

Thought Disorders

D-Prep Safety

Schizophrenia is one of the most upsetting and difficult mental health problems to address with a student. The media portrays those with schizophrenia as knife wielding, crazy people looking to stab mothers walking their young children in baby carriages. Schizophrenics are seen as talking to themselves, responding to voices from another place, and presenting a danger to the community as a whole.

Early Identification of Grooming and Targeting in Predatory Sexual Behavior on College Campuses

Early Identification of Grooming and Targeting in Predatory Sexual Behavior on College Campuses

Brian Van Brunt, EdD, Amy Murphy, PhD, Lisa Pescara-Kovach, PhD, and Gina-Lyn Crance, EdD

Institutions of higher education have an opportunity through prevention programs, education, and early intervention to reduce the occurrence of sexual violence within their student population. This article outlines grooming and targeting behaviors used in sexual predation in an effort to better inform those working in student conduct, the student affairs department, law enforcement, prevention education, and counseling/health services.

Sexual Assault on College and University Campuses

Sexual Assault on College and University Campuses

Mary Ellen O’Toole, PhD with Brian Van Brunt, EdD, Brett A. Sokolow, JD, Caitlin Flanagan, Monika Johnson Hostler, and Alison Kiss

Sexual assault on college and university campuses is in the headlines today, and there is a great deal of misinformation out there about the problem. This roundtable discussion provides knowledge and insight into the issues surrounding sexual assault on college campuses

The Dirty Dozen: Twelve Risk Factors for Sexual Violence on College Campuses (DD-12)

The Dirty Dozen: Twelve Risk Factors for Sexual Violence on College Campuses (DD-12)

Brian Van Brunt, EdD, Amy Murphy, EdD, and Mary Ellen O’Toole, PhD

National conversations have focused recently on the need for colleges and universities to better address the dilemma of sexual assault and other forms of sexual violence on U.S. college campuses. In the wake of this recent attention, university faculty and staff are faced with the dilemma of better understanding the motivations and risk factors associated with individuals and groups committing these types of attacks. Understanding these risk factors provides administrators, conduct officers, law enforcement, prevention advocates, and counselors with insight into preventative education and better informed policy and procedures to reduce sexual assault in the university setting.

Uprooting Sexual Violence in Higher Education: A Guide for Practitioners and Faculty

Uprooting Sexual Violence in Higher Education: A Guide for Practitioners and Faculty

Amy Murphy and Brian Van Brunt

With national conversation turned toward sexual assault on college campuses, knowing how to identify, prevent, and address these incidents in a safe, and productive way is essential for administrators and faculty. Uprooting Sexual Violence in Higher Education provides colleges and universities with a foundational understanding of twelve risk factors related to sexual assault, stalking, and intimate partner violence. By presenting a blend of theory, research, and the personal reflections of professionals ‘on the front lines,’ this book provides insights into the motivations, attitudes, and behaviors behind sexual assault on campus, as well as strategies for mitigating these risk factors in an effort to tailor prevention efforts. Whether you are seeking a way to navigate the recent regulations on sexual violence from the federal government or merely wish to safeguard the welfare of students on your campus, this book will provide the neccesary, and invaluable foundation you need to empower, respect, and support all students.

An Educator’s Guide to Assessing Threats in Student Writing

An Educator’s Guide to Assessing Threats in Student Writing

Brian Van Brunt, W. Scott Lewis & Jeffrey H. Solomon

Based on research from the threat-assessment community and drawing from the collective fields of law enforcement, law, and psychology, the authors expand on evidence-based practices to help student affairs staff and K-12 educators best assess the validity of these communications and develop intervention and management plans.

Assessing Threat in Written Communications, Social Media, and Creative Writing

Assessing Threat in Written Communications, Social Media, and Creative Writing

Dr. Brian Van Brunt

Most of those who plan violent attacks communicate their intentions before the attacks via social media and written communication, either through unintentional ‘‘leakage’’ or intentionally through ‘‘legacy tokens’’ used to explain their motivations. Most attackers share this information prior to the attack as a fantasy rehearsal to gauge the reaction and level of the attention that will come to them after the actual attack.

Averting Targeted School Violence: A U.S. Secret Service Analysis of Plots against schools

Averting Targeted School Violence: A U.S. Secret Service Analysis of Plots against schools

National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC)

Understanding cases of averted violence allows officials and researchers the ability to study where violence reduction principles worked and stopped an attack from moving from idea to action. This study included 67 averted attacks occurring from 2006 to 2018. The report stresses the importance of identifying risk factors like bullying, access to firearms, and grievances prior to criminal action.

Before the Interview: Get Context

Before the Interview: Get Context

D-Prep Safety

This helpful guide offers suggestions for getting context before an interview.

Beyond the Red Flags

Beyond the Red Flags

Brian Van Brunt, Ed.D. and Amy Murphy, Ph.D.

Early identification of red flags and at-risk behavior is a research-based best practice in the prevention of targeted violence. This article expands on this foundational concept and describes how to fill gaps in targeted violence prevention by moving beyond red flags. The authors describe five critical concepts related to behavioral intervention and threat assessment work in schools, workplaces, and communities that are commonly missed or underutilized.

Beyond the Red Flags: Overcoming Obstacles and Managing Threat

Beyond the Red Flags: Overcoming Obstacles and Managing Threat

D-Prep Safety

When it comes to preventing violence, it is not enough to just know and recognize the red flags. We need to advance the research-based work of collaborative teams, avoid the singular focus on target hardening or mental health diagnosis, increase the use of threat or violence risk assessments over psychological assessments, incorporate red teaming into processes to identify vulnerabilities, and commit to continuous risk assessments and ongoing threat management.

Dangerous Instincts: Use an FBI Profiler's Tactics to Avoid Unsafe Situations

Dangerous Instincts: Use an FBI Profiler's Tactics to Avoid Unsafe Situations

Mary Ellen O’Toole & Alisa Bowman

Using the SMART method, which O’Toole developed and used at the FBI, we can confidently know how to Respond to a threat in any situation, hire someone who will work inside your home like a contractor or housekeeper, figure out whether a prospective employee is a safe bet, know whom you can trust with your children, and more.

Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model

Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model

National Threat Assessment Center

When incidents of school violence occur, they leave a profound and lasting impact on the school, the community, and our nation as a whole. Ensuring safe environments for elementary and secondary school students, educators, administrators, and others is essential. This operational guide was developed to provide fundamental direction on how to prevent incidents of targeted school violence, that is, when a student specifically selects a school or a member of the school community for harm. The content in this guide is based on information developed by the U.S. Secret Service, Protective Intelligence and Assessment Division, National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC).

Foundations of Threat Assessment and Management

Foundations of Threat Assessment and Management

Andre Simons and J. Reid Meloy

In June of 2014 a Seattle Pacific University student tackled and pepper-sprayed an active shooter on campus who had killed one person and injured two others (“1 dead, others hurt,” 2014). In April of 2015 in Washington State, a North Thurston High School teacher confronted and overpowered a 16-year-old school shooter who had fired two shots inside the high school (“Teacher Tackles Shooter,” 2015). In the summer of 2015, a heavily armed gunman opened fire on a high-speed train traveling from Amsterdam to Paris before being challenged by passengers, two of whom were US soldiers ( “The Men Who Averted,” 2015). These disruptions were heroic, incredibly brave, and saved countless lives. The right people were in the right place at the right time; they recognized the signs of the attack and made the decision to challenge the offender.

Guidelines for Responding to Student Threats of Violence

Guidelines for Responding to Student Threats of Violence

Dewey Cornell and Peter Sheras

This is the only threat assessment model supported by controlled studies and listed in the federal government's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. An efficient and effective way to resolve student threats and reduce use of school suspension. Used in thousands of schools nationwide. Training available from the author.

Harm to Others: The Assessment and Treatment of Dangerousness

Harm to Others: The Assessment and Treatment of Dangerousness

Brian Van Brunt

Van Brunt offers an effective way to increase knowledge of and training in violence risk and threat assessment, and it also provides a comprehensive examination of current treatment approaches. The underlying concepts and suggestions are useful for counselors, psychologists, and social workers who face these issues in their daily practice.

Incel Indoctrination Rubric (IIR)

Incel Indoctrination Rubric (IIR)

Drs. Brian Van Brunt and Chris Taylor

The IIR looks at risk factors for incel beliefs and behaviors to gauge an individual's level of indoctrination into the incel movement.

International Handbook of Threat Assessment

International Handbook of Threat Assessment

J. Reid Meloy & Jens Hoffman

Threat assessment is a method used by mental health and law enforcement professionals to assess the risk of intended violence toward a specific target. This guide offers a definition of the foundations of threat assessment, systematically explores its fields of practice, and provides information and instruction on the best practices of threat assessment.

Rapport Building

Rapport Building

D-Prep Safety

This personal connection and attention are necessary at the very outset of the assessment. Failure to create the proper conditions and interview climate will result in increased defensiveness and decreased information being shared.

Terrorist in Training: The Role of Social Media and the Rise of Terrorism through Nationalistic White Agenda

Terrorist in Training: The Role of Social Media and the Rise of Terrorism through Nationalistic White Agenda

Drs. Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Brian Van Brunt and Amy Murphy

The U.S. political landscape is increasingly divided, fueled in part by the indignant, caustic, and divisive language used in our social media and online conversations. The authors examine a subset of white males who feel marginalized and powerless as they hear messaging advancing tolerance, diversity, equality, and political correctness. This in turn has fueled vocal and strident opposition to mass immigration, rage over the disappearance of a so-called pure culture of Germans and Europeans, and an underlying fear at the prospect of losing their history and heritage. The open nature of social media has provided a safe haven for our youth to be radicalized by those espousing Generation Identity and Alt-Right ideologies, euphemisms for white supremacist thought and Nazism. The authors explore this trend through the recent terroristic actions in El Paso, Texas, Charleston, South Carolina and the related events of Oslo, Norway and Christchurch, New Zealand.

The Role of Warning Behaviors in Threat Assessment: An Exploration and Suggested Typology

The Role of Warning Behaviors in Threat Assessment: An Exploration and Suggested Typology

J. Reid Meloy, Ph.D., Jens Hoffmann, Ph.D., Angela Guldimann, M.A., and David James, M.B., B.S., M.A.

The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional’s judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat – whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors.

Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Assessing Hunters and Howlers

Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Assessing Hunters and Howlers

Frederick S. Calhoun & Stephen W. Weston

A successful threat management process does not necessarily depend on large staffs or huge resource commitments, but, instead, on attention to detail and a thoughtful approach. Through case studies and analyses, this volume explains the best practices for assessing problem individuals and the optimal protective response and management strategy.

Threat Assessment: A Risk Management Approach

Threat Assessment: A Risk Management Approach

James T. Turner & Michael G Gelles

Threat Assessment: A Risk Management Approach examines the factors that human resource, security, legal, and behavioral professionals need to understand in work violence and threat situations that disrupt the working environment, revealing the best ways to reduce risk and manage emergencies.

Types of Threat

Types of Threat

D-Prep Safety

This guide provides information on the types of threats and the elements we look at to determine the likely risk involved.

Understanding and Treating Incels: Case Studies, Guidance, and Treatment of Violence Risk

Understanding and Treating Incels: Case Studies, Guidance, and Treatment of Violence Risk

Brian Van Brunt & Chris Taylor

This is an indispensable guide for mental health clinical staff, social workers, prevention specialists, educators, and threat assessment professionals who want to better understand the involuntary celibate movement, assess individuals’ potential for violence, and offer treatment approaches and prevention efforts.

Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner’s Handbook

Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner’s Handbook

James S. Cawood & Michael H. Corcoran

This text provides a proven methodology, grounded in the current empirical research and the authors’ experience in successfully assessing and managing thousands of cases, for analyzing concerning behaviors and potential threatening situations, and taking action in these challenging, dynamic environments before tragedy occurs.

Where the Attack Cycle Intersects the Pathway to Violence

Where the Attack Cycle Intersects the Pathway to Violence

TorchStone VP, Scott Stewart

The concept of the attack cycle is a useful framework protective intelligence practitioners can use to understand, identify and detect behaviors associated with an intentional or targeted attack. The demands of the attack cycle requires those planning an attack to conduct certain activities and the vulnerabilities to detection they leave themselves open to. This article examines how the attack cycle intersects with another model for understanding the behavior and indicators assailants exhibit before an attack, known as The Pathway to Violence.

White Supremacist Indoctrination Rubric (WSIR)

White Supremacist Indoctrination Rubric (WSIR)

The WSIR was developed by Drs. Brian Van Brunt and Lisa Pescara-Kovach as a research-based, reliable and easy to use approach to assessing the subject’s level of white supremacist indoctrination. This is useful in violence risk assessment and developing treatments and interventions.

White Supremacist Violence: Understanding the Resurgence and Stopping the Spread

White Supremacist Violence: Understanding the Resurgence and Stopping the Spread

Brian Van Brunt, Lisa Pescara-Kovach & Bethany Van Brunt

White Supremacist Violence is a powerful resource for education and mental health professionals who are developing the tools and skills needed to slow the progress of the fast-growing hate movement in the United States. White Supremacist Violence gives readers useful perspectives and insights into the white supremacy movement while offering clinicians, threat-assessment professionals, and K-12 and university educators and administrators practical guidance on treatment and prevention efforts.

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